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#4 2017
New research related to regional economy

Identifying the Social Structure and the Inequality in Monetary Income of Russian Population
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The article aims at identifying the social structure and the inequality in monetary income of the population in Russia. identification of the social groups with different levels of material well-being in a society with a high inequality in the distribution of living standard is a relevant topic. The integration of normative and statistical methods allows to consider the limitations of the existing model of the distribution of cash income and adjust the boundaries of social groups with different levels of material well-being. At the same time, we stay within the criteria for the social standards of the differentiation of living standards. The authors have corrected the specific weight of the Russian social groups with different levels of material well-being. To define these social groups, we have applied the system of normative consumer budgets for different level of material well-being. This paper discovers the intervals for the levels of income and consumption, which are not in contradiction with the normative approach and existing conditions of the Russian economic development. These intervals are advisable for the identification of the social groups with different levels of life. The proposed tools allow to integrate the measurements into the international system and define the place of Russia in terms of economic inequalities among other countries. The authors have assessed the weights of the different social groups, their share in the total volume of monetary income and their polarization in terms of living standards. The main conclusions of the article can be used as a theoretical, methodological and practical basis for identifying social structures in terms of living standards, determining their numbers and economic inequality. The research results can be introduced into the statistical monitoring of the living standards of the population.

Socio-Economic Priorities for the Sustainable Development of Russian Arctic Macro-Region
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To properly justify the priorities for the Russian Arctic Zone sustainable development is methodologically challenging for two reasons. Firstly, this challenge is due to fast changes of external and internal conditions for the development of the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF). Secondly, the interpretation of the concept of “sustainability” is too wide inconsistent. As the concepts of “sustainability” as well as the concept of “sustainable growth” in this wide sense are frequently used to characterize economic, social and other processes and systems, these key categories are difficult to apply as development’ targets and evaluation criteria practice of public administration in Russia. Using the case of Arctic macro-region, the paper substantiates the concept of spatial systems’ sustainability as their ability to maintain functionality under destabilizing impact of exogenous and endogenous factors. Such an ability is particularly important because of variations in structure and intensity of these negative impacts including from climate change. Within this methodological framework, we have specified the indicators of sustainability relating to the practice of public management in the AZRF development. The paper has discussed the existing and emerging exogenous and endogenous impacts on the AZRF development sustainability. We set two priorities among the goals and objectives for ensuring the AZRF sustainable functioning under the conditions of climate. In social (socio-economic) sphere, it is necessary to maintain and improve the public health. In economic sphere, the most needed are strengthening of coherency and reliability of the transportation system, energy supplies to distant consumers, and stimulating of investment and industrial activities of the large industrial corporations.

Russia Between Two Subcontinents of Eurasia: Advantages and New Threats
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The geographical location of Russia between Europe and Asia is unique. Russia possesses huge and low-populated territories, which are rich with natural resources. Throughout the centuries, Russia had natural advantages over other countries during the periods of peaceful development as well as during the war years. However, currently, in the conditions of the technological revolution, these advantages may be underestimated. Moreover, these benefits may get under control of Asia or Europe. The country as a geographical region is located between two superpower subcontinental and regional economic centres — the European Union in Europe and China in Asia. These conditions demand, first of all, much more successful development of Russia, or a powerful economic breakthrough. Secondly, the economy of many depressive regions of the country needs an accelerated development. Thirdly, Russia should strengthen its multilateral communications with near neighbours — allies on Eurasian Economic Union to transform this integration group into one of the most successful in the Eurasian region.

«Turn to the East» Policy: Expectations and Reality
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Macroeconomic dynamics, foreign economic relations, reproduction proportions in the Russian economy and the economy of the Russian Far East are analyzed. The author considers sub-global orientation of state economic policy in Russia after 2010. The changing geographic vector of economic policy is analyzed through a modified geographic structure of the expected increase in the country’s export rent, and also through the shift of the center of concentration of resources, which are necessary to form a new pole of growth in the national economy. The author reviews macroeconomic dynamics and analyzes the factors of the cyclical development of the Russian economy. The paper evaluates the dynamics of the geographical structure of foreign markets. The author’s hypothesis suggests that foreign trade interactions are not sufficiently restructured to reconceive economic policies. For this purpose, the institutional integration within the new integration space is of critical importance. The article considers trends and regularities that explain the equilibrium parameters of the economic system of the Russian Far East, as well as the possibility of transition to new equilibrium levels. The author discusses the ratio of investment and institutional factors of modernization and the formation of stable positive macroeconomic and structural dynamics in the region. Based on Russian and foreign scientific literature, I consider the most common interpretations of threats and opportunities for the economic development of the Russian Far East, including the impact of demographic trends, structural improvement, competitive environment factors, institutional innovations. The study discusses the influence of the Chinese «one belt — one way» project on the prospects for implementing the domestic and foreign eastern economic policy of the Russian Federation.

Methodological Tools for the Detection of Risks to the Welfare of the Individuals and the Territory of Residence
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To formalise the assessment of risks to the welfare of individuals and the territory of residence presents a relevant issue. This study aims to define the economic security in the structure of the system of the welfare of individuals and the territory of residence and to develop a classifier of risks. We consider the economic security as one of the needs for meeting which the welfare aims. The risk assessment includes three stages. At the first stage, we calculate the welfare of individuals and the territory. At the second stage, the authors determine the coefficient of variation to select indicators that will characterize the risks to the welfare. The third stage assumes the assessment of these risks, which reduce the welfare. The regional economic system is considered as a multidimensional stochastic system, which can be modelled as a vector random variable. The components of this variable generally are mutually correlated. The formalization of the assessment of risks to the welfare is based on this interpretation of the regional economic system. As a result, the authors highlighted the main threats to the welfare of individuals and the territory of residence. We have selected risk factors with high coefficient of variation, which indicates that the selected indicators have a high degree of variability. The research evaluates risks to the welfare of individuals and the territory of residence assessing the probability of the occurrence of crisis states for the regions of the Ural Federal District. The probabilities of the states pre-crisis 1 and pre-crisis 2 for all these regions are sufficiently high. It can indicate that the general social and economic state in the regions of the Ural Federal District is unstable. The findings can be used to develop an effective risk management system at the regional level.

Interpretation of the Term “Reindustrialization” in the Conditions of Globalization
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The authors state the hypothesis that the reindustrialisation tends to be globally understood as having different features for every country. The industrial policy of each state to reindustrialize the national economy determines these special features. The methodology of the research is presented by the wide range of different tools and methods. It includes the systematic approach to the interpretation of reindustrialisation, structuring the existing interpretations of reindustrialisation, criteria-based analysis of broader concepts, historical analysis of statistic data. Furthermore, we used basic scientific methods of analytical summary, quantitative analysis, deduction and abstraction. To prove the suggested hypothesis, the authors have compared key trends in the global economy with the existing theoretical approaches to reindustrialization in national and foreign economic research. We have analyzed the interpretation of reindustrialization as a global economic trend and as a specific state policy. The main features of reindustrialization process and its difference from reshoring- are examined. We have classified the key interpretations of “new industrialization” and “reindustrialization” terms tacking into account their correlation. To identify the common and specific features of the new industrialization and reindustrialization processes, the author used the criteria-based analysis. This allowed us to determine the most important qualitative and quantitative features of reindustrialization as a global tendency. Furthermore, we have classified the basic tools of state reindustrialization policy in number of developed and developing countries.
Socio-economic problems of region

Intellectual and Technological Development of Regions: Challenges and Ways to Address them
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The article reveals the issues of intellectual and technological development of the country and regions. The author shows that growing number of employees with higher education is not accompanied by a proportionate increase in the technology level of the economy. This is due to the change of the purpose of higher education. Gradually, the higher education has become a tool ensuring a common cultural level of the population. The author analyses major reasons for a weak contribution of an increasing number of employees with higher education to the technological growth. Professional researchers and employees from various types of industries should be considered as producers of intellectual and technological development. I suggest calling them the generators of intelligent technologies. The author’s interpretation of the concept of «scientific and research education» implies not only the development of creative abilities, but also the understanding of the causes and consequences of natural and social processes as well as critical reflection on these processes. Scientific and research education is emerging directly from research activity. The support of scientific and research education keeps in the society the desire of scientific breakthroughs. The author has revealed the negative tendencies in science. They are related to a considerable decrease in research and development as well as to the withdrawal of the Russian business from the sphere of scientific research. I conclude that there is an urgent need to invest into science. This will result in scientific and technological progress, which would develop the society and increase the productivity of social activities.

Analysis of Factors and Development Potential of Economic Clusters by Economic Activities in Mari El Republic
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This article analyzes the factors that drive the development of economic clusters in Mari El Republic (Russia). This analysis allowed to reveal the potential of those clusters further development. I consider a shift-share method as one of the major methods to identify the factors that determine the expansion of economic clusters. The author proposes the modification of shift-share method using relative performance indicators to evaluate the intensity and qualitaty of clustering processes in the region. The article presents the results of empirical research of the economy of Mari El Republic by shift-share method (2005–2015 years) in the context of economic activities according to the Federal State Statistics Service. After the analysis of three basic indicators, the leading and lagging economic activities were revealed for the period of 10 years. I paid special attention to the analysis of clustering potential of the Mari El Republic in the context of economic activities based on the Clustering Potential Index. This analysis shows promising economic activities and industries that may form cluster. The author discusses the compliance and possible conflicts of two methods used in the study. Further research of this field can focus on the of system analysis and identifying specific companies and production chains that form the basis of clustering.

Forecasting of Socio-Economic Development of the Russian Regions
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The regional differentiation makes impossible the sustainable socio-economic development of the subjects of the Russian Federation without the monitoring public governance results in space and time. Despite the comprehensive approach of the current procedure, approved by the federal government, it does not adequately assess the executive authorities effectiveness. Its main problem is the impossibility to assume such important administrative function as forecasting the social and economic development of Russian territorial subjects. The authors propose an alternative methodology on the basis of the system economic theory. This technique is implemented in several consecutive stages. Firstly, we develop the system of 30 indicators. Secondly, we normalize the values of the indicators using the method of pattern. Thirdly, we calculate the index of the social and economic development of Russian regions for 2011–2015 assuming that the indicators are equal. Last, we group Russian regions into clusters according to the level of their social and economic development using neural network technologies (Kohonen selforganizing maps). Only 9 in 80 subjects of the Russian Federation (RF) had the degree of realizing the social and economic potential higher than 40 % during the period under consideration. In 2011–2015, the most of regions had a low and lower than average level of social and economic development (with an aggregate share about 64.3 %). It means that, under current conditions, the majority of the RF regions have considerable reserves for realizing their social-economic potential. In particular, the absence of the territorial subjects with a high level of social and economic development proves that. The authors have simulated the social and economic situation of the RF subjects by means of an adequate Bayesian neural networks. The obtained results can be used as the basis for further research in the field of evaluating executive authorities effectiveness and forecasting the level of social and economic development of Russian regions.

Macroeconomic Determinants of the Entrepreneurial Activity at Different Business Cycle Phases
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Nowadays, the Russian economy is facing the crisis. Thus it becomes important to create a favorable environment for the formation of local sustainable economic growth and positive expectations in the business sector. The existing literature in this field focuses on macroeconomic determinants of the entrepreneurial activity and does not investigate the effect of the business cycle on firms’ decision making. On the contrary, this paper concentrates on Russian regions and identifies the key business cycle factors shaping the entrepreneurial activity both at the regional and the firm-specific levels. The analysis combines aggregate series on 83 regions in 2005–2014 with microeconomic data provided by “SPARK–Interfax”. In particular, we considered 200 companies in 4 regions of Russia during 2005–2014. Special attention is paid to testing of research hypotheses concerning dynamics of enterprise activity on various phases of business cycle. The identification strategy is built on panel data analysis, as well as survival analysis. We find that the aggregate entrepreneurial activity responds to changes in the regional economic environment with a lag. Moreover, it shows some acyclicity. On average, firms that were organized during the downward phase of the business cycle are more stable (i.e. have a high survival rate). This can be explained with a stronger financial resistance and their experience of operating under uncertainty. Based on these findings, we formulate policy recommendations. In particular, we propose to develop a regional “business map” that would reflect the key features of Russian territories.

Regional Entrepreneurship System: Development Parameters and Potential of Reconfiguration
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The article deals with the development of entrepreneurship in the Russian regions. Firstly, the state of both Russian entrepreneurship, in general, and small and medium-sized business in particular is not satisfactory. Secondly, the measures implemented by the state in the field of entrepreneurship development are not sufficiently effective. To the authors’ opinion, these two facts are due, among other things, to a lack of a holistic understanding of what constitutes an institution of entrepreneurship in a spatial context. The authors propose to consider the development of regional entrepreneurship using the system approach with the scope to the regional business system. Within the proposed authors’ approach, resources, economic agents and institutions are considered as the main elements of this system. The authors substantiate that there are institutional configurations, and not simple institutions, which determine the parameters of interaction between the elements of the regional enterprise system. These elements can contribute to the enterprise processes in the territory or block them. We assume that even a region with an essential resource of business potential is not able to realize it completely until it develops an effective institutional configuration of the regional business system. In order to investigate certain parameters of the institutional configuration of the regional business system, we propose a methodology for assessing the institutional loyalty of business entities and testing this technique on the example of eighty-four constituent entities of the Russian Federation. We have concluded that, in a large part of the Russian regions, a successful implementation of strategy for the development of small and medium-sized businesses will require the transformation of the regional enterprise system on the basis of reengineering. It involves a radical redesigning the entire system, ensuring the entrepreneurial processes in a territory. The authors prove that the basis for reengineering should be the institutional reconfiguration of the regional business system. The results of the research can be used to identify systemic problems that impede the development of entrepreneurship in the Russian regions and to develop more effective measures to address these problems.

Network Interactions in the Great Altai Region
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To improve the efficiency and competitiveness of the regional economy, an effective interaction between educational institutions in the Great Altai region is needed. The innovation growth can enhancing this interaction. The article explores the state of network structures in the economy and higher education in the border territories of the countries of Great Altai. The authors propose an updated approach to the three-level classification of network interaction. We analyze growing influence of the countries with emerging economies. We define the factors that impede the more stable and multifaceted regional development of these countries. Further, the authors determine indicators of the higher education systems and cooperation systems at the university level between the Shanghai Cooperation Organization countries (SCO) and BRICS countries, showing the international rankings of the universities in these countries. The teaching language is important to overcome the obstacles in the interregional cooperation. The authors specify the problems of the development of the universities of the SCO and BRICS countries as global educational networks. The research applies basic scientific logical methods of analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, as well as the SWOT analysis method. We have indentified and analyzed the existing economic and educational relations. To promote the economic innovation development of the border territories of the Great Altai, we propose a model of regional network university. Modern universities function in a new economic environment. Thus, in a great extent, they form the technological and social aspects of this environment. Innovative network structures contribute to the formation of a new network institutional environment of the regional economy, which impacts the macro- and microeconomic performance of the region as a whole. The results of the research can help to optimize the regional economies of the border territories in neighboring countries.

Methods of Integrated Assessment of Megalopolis’s Micro-Districts on the Basis of Residents’ Opinions
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The paper presents a methodology for assessing city areas on the basis of residents’ opinions. In contrast to preceding approaches, this methodology combines the opinions on the various features of living in certain micro-districts as well as the way these districts are perceived. Therefore, this technique includes the rational and emotional assessments. Moreover, we assess both the district residents and the inhabitants living outside the area. Thus, the research combines the assessments from inside and outside. The evaluation is based on the representative survey of the residents of Ekaterinburg. The research hypothesis is that city districts will differ significantly in the attractiveness as well as in a set of determinants for the assessments given by residents. The authors’ methodology for rating micro-districts includes three groups of indicators. First, there is the assessment of the residents’ satisfaction level in various aspects of their lives. Second, we assess the residents’ emotional appraisal of the areas, in which they live. Last, there is a choice of the city’s best micro-district to live in. The empirical research found a high degree of differentiation in the obtained ratings and highlighted their socio-economic determinants such as the assessment of personal financial position, housing type, assessment of personal living conditions. The findings of this research provide insights for managerial decisionmaking in strategic regional planning. In particular, these results can be used to address the polarization of the development of urban areas revealed in this research. Further research can be conducted in three directions. Firstly, a deeper analysis of the availability and attractiveness of different types of infrastructure for residents (medical, educational, relaxation infrastructures, etc.) would be of interest. Secondly, micro-district could be ranked by different groups of population (retirees, persons with disabilities, etc.). Last, further research needs an assessment of the different micro-districts attractiveness for work and leisure activities.
Socio-demographic potential of regional development

Transformation of Pension Systems in the Countries of Eurasian Economic Union
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Current integration processes, develop actively on the territory of Eurasian Economic Union (EEU). A single labour market has been created. Building a model of social interaction between the State Parties of EEU is crucial for the development of longterm strategy of the EEU. The Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (2014) provides identifying factors, threats and potential areas of cooperation between the EEU countries in the sphere of pension services. This identification requires systematizing the key indicators of EEU national pension systems. There is a necessity to improve not only the pension system of every country individually but also to search the possibilities for their coordination in the future. From the beginning of 1990th, in all EEU countries, the pension systems have been establishing and developing. The authors present the brief review and comparative analysis of these systems. We identify their similarities and differences according to set criteria and determine possible areas for integration of pension systems in EEU. We consider both the socio-economic parameters (including retirement age, amount of pension payments, pension payment procedures and pattern of pension payments) and the demographic features of the EEU countries. The paper systematizes the macroeconomic and population indicators. On their basis, we reveal the opportunities and risks for the EEU countries cooperation in the sphere of pension system. To investigate the pension systems of EEU countries, we applied the methods of logical, comparative and statistical analysis. The results of this study indicate that the coordination of the pension systems of EEU countries needs cooperation in four directions. First of all, it is necessary to elaborate the single principles of social guarantees for retirees. Secondly, there is a need to ensure guaranteed retirement income. Thirdly, single basic approaches for the regulation of investment activities of pension funds should be elaborated. Last, single data bank for pension provision can be created.

Demographics in the “Marriage Market” of the Sverdlovsk Region
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The article is devoted to the analysis of “marriage market” in the Sverdlovsk region and its comparison with the corresponding situation in the Russian Federation. In recent years, the level of marriage rate (per 1000 population) has reduced. According to the first hypothesis of the author, the decline in the marriage rate is a result of deterioration in the “marriage market”. This deterioration is due to the ageing of the population; disproportion between the number of unmarried men and women; unrealistic intentions of many men to marry women significantly younger than themselves (women rarely agree to a marriage with a large age difference). A second hypothesis is that the number of marriages decreases because people do not want to marry, even if there are potential brides and grooms age-appropriate for them. To test both hypotheses, the author applies his unique method of nuptial potentials. Under this method, the number of marriages is compared not with the number of population, nor with the number of unmarried men (or unmarried women). It is compared with additional nuptial potential that is with the maximum possible number of marriages in this situation in the marriage market. Calculations by the method of nuptial potential have confirmed both author’s hypotheses, and showed that the situation in “marriage market” is similar in the Sverdlovsk region and across Russia as a whole. Moreover, the method of nuptial potentials can be used to compare demographic projections taking into account the nuptiality.

Cluster Analysis as an Analytical Tool of Population Policy
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The predicted negative trends in Russian demography (falling birth rates, population decline) actualize the need to strengthen measures of family and population policy. Our research purpose is to identify groups of Russian regions with similar characteristics in the family sphere using cluster analysis. The findings should make an important contribution to the field of family policy. We used hierarchical cluster analysis based on the Ward method and the Euclidean distance for segmentation of Russian regions. Clustering is based on four variables, which allowed assessing the family institution in the region. The authors used the data of Federal State Statistics Service from 2010 to 2015. Clustering and profiling of each segment has allowed forming a model of Russian regions depending on the features of the family institution in these regions. The authors revealed four clusters grouping regions with similar problems in the family sphere. This segmentation makes it possible to develop the most relevant family policy measures in each group of regions. Thus, the analysis has shown a high degree of differentiation of the family institution in the regions. This suggests that a unified approach to population problems’ solving is far from being effective. To achieve greater results in the implementation of family policy, a differentiated approach is needed. Methods of multidimensional data classification can be successfully applied as a relevant analytical toolkit. Further research could develop the adaptation of multidimensional classification methods to the analysis of the population problems in Russian regions. In particular, the algorithms of nonparametric cluster analysis may be of relevance in future studies.
Industry-specific and inter-industry-specific complexes

Comparative Assessment the of Effectiveness of Sports Development in the Russian Regions on the Basis of DEA Method
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The article investigates the financial resource management for the development of mass and elite sports at the regional level. The authors used statistical data of the Ministry of Sports that include 28 socio-economic indicators and 39 indicators of sports development in 82 regions for 2012 — 2015. A model of sports development was built using PLS-SEM method. We identified the following latent variables: economic development of the region; funds allocated to sports development; availability of resources; development of mass sports; development level of professional sports; results in elite sports, results in adaptive sports. The level of regional economic development affects the amount of funding allocated to the sports, which in turn determines the availability of resources. Availability of resources affects the success in the development of mass and professional sports. Success in professional sports determines results in great sporting achievements and adaptive sports. Structural modelling allowed us to identify measurable indicators of resources (model inputs) and results of sports development (model outputs). The authors assessed the effectiveness of transformation of inputs into outputs using DEA method. We investigated two models. The first one uses the indicators of mass sports development as outputs, the second one uses the indictors of professional sports development as outputs. The inputs of both models are the indicators of financial resources for sports. The simultaneous review of the effectiveness of two directions allows to emphasize the features of each region and evaluate balance in the development of mass and professional sports. The modelling results allow to identify several groups of regions with similar parameters, which may be due to their similar locations.

Electrification as a Development Driver for “Smart Cities”
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The increasing electrification of the transport infrastructure, residential and commercial sectors of a “smart city” induces structural changes in energy sector. This investigation will enhance our understanding of mechanisms to develop a regional power industry, which would serve intellectual technologies of future urban environment considering national features. The authors define electrification as the process of bringing the most advanced energy carrier — electricity — to the national economy. This process integrates the spheres of electric power consumption and electric power generation. The article identifies the features and key trends in a new electrification stage in «smart cities». The paper shows that the energy sector of such cities combines centralized and decentralized technological solutions. This requires a certain readjustment of the distribution and sales divisions of the regional electric power industry. In particular, modernization of low-voltage distribution networks, improvement of tariff policy, implementation of programs of energy demand management are needed. The authors reveal priority areas for electrification in smart cities. Firstly, these cities need to develop electric transport, electric cars and associated infrastructure. Secondly, the introduction of various control systems for residential appliances will make households smarter. We show the impact of electric cars on the electricity market and loads in a regional energy system. In particular, we analyse the foreign experience of electric cars integration into power network. As regards the electrification of smart homes, the authors outline the basic «energy» conditions for their design, and requirements to be met by regional contractors, producers of energy equipment, utilities and grid companies. We develop a system of technological and economic solutions for moving relevant projects to an active phase. These projects include controllable generation power equipments, energy saving equipments and storages, power plants structure optimizing, electrical grinds shortening. Moreover, the authors propose a variety of differentiated electricity tariffs that would encourage electrification in smart cities.

Energy Approach to Measure the Region’s Assimilative Capacity
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One of the important problems of the environmental economics is the development of methodology for quantifying the assimilative capacity (AC) of a territory. The article analyzes the existing approaches to determining and assessing the AC of a territory. We justify the advantages of using the energy approach. The authors’ method consists in using the maximum permissible energy load (MPEL) for quantitative assessment of the AC of a territory. MPEL is a value that the ecological and economic system can withstand for a long time without changing its properties. We determine MPEL on the basis of data on the ability of various categories of land to absorb greenhouse gases (GHG), as well as the specific GHG emissions per ton of conventional fuel. Further, we compare the calculated value of MPEL in fuel equivalents with the actual consumption of fuel resources for the needs of the national economy. These values ratio can serve as a standard for measuring and balancing the environmental and economic system. The authors have validated the described method on the example of the Sverdlovsk region, which is characterized by a high level of man’s impact. Calculations show that the actual consumption of fossil fuels in the region exceeds MPEL. That indicates an imbalance in the ecological and economic system and may lead to further deterioration of the environmental quality in the region. The proposed methodological approach and calculations can be used when developing strategic planning documents for a territory, including its energy strategy
Innovative capacity of a region

The Technological Innovations and Their Impact on the Economy
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Drastic and inclusive technology progress is changing the economy of Russia and foreign countries. This progress significantly impacts production forces. . This paper analyzes theoretical and applied approaches to the investigation of production forces development. I reveal the role and importance of innovations in science and technology as well as their impact on various segments of the economy. I analyze the conceptual framework used for technological shifts. The paper describes the indicators showing the level of scientific and technological potential development in various countries and regions including the Urals. I define growth areas in technology and assess their contribution to gross domestic product (GDP) growth. The administrations and authorities at federal and regional levels impact the development of science, innovations, technologies and breakthrough areas. The development of these spheres leads to the increase in productivity of social activities, production and business activity. The paper reveals the impact of the technological breakthrough in such latest fields as the alternative energy sources, drones, electric car industry, storage and delivery of energy. This fields transform the economy and society. Furthermore, they change theoretical concepts of functional and institutional social structure. The development paradigm is to be modified from fuel and raw model to the innovative and technological one. The economic development and scientific and technological potential are interrelated. I discuss the reason of close attention to the development of science, technologies, innovations in the developed countries. as well as the measures to stimulate their development. The article studies the mechanism and tools of science and education funding in various regions of the world. The results of the research may be used for updating the strategy of scientific and technological development of Russia and its regions in the current situation as well as for choosing necessary conceptual approaches to the development of the economy.
Economic security of region

Security of Regional Economic Space: Conceptual Framework and System of Indicators
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The purpose of the article is to develop the conceptual framework for the regional economic space security on the basis of the authors’ method of cyclic gradation. The subjects of the Russian Federation are considered as regions. The research attempts several objectives. The first one is to reveal the specificity of both the economic security in the conditions of the existing geoeconomic tensions and import substitution policy initiated in 2014 and. Secondly, this study seeks to consider the relevant approaches to the analysis of regional economic security. Thirdly, we aimed at substantiating the spatial specificity of economic security at the regional level. And last, we suggest the method of cyclic gradation for the analysis of economic space security. The subjects of the Russian Federation face their own conceptual problems and challenges. One of these challenges is the increasing scale of integration processes. This situation is due to the asymmetric development of the Russian regions. In particular, the concentration of business activity in Moscow and several other subjects of Russian Federation, which are formally or informally recognized as strategic regions for the country development, demonstrates this asymmetry. The assessment of the economic security of Russian regions is conditioned by some methodological problems. In fact, the monitoring of socio-economic situation at the regional level does not consider the entire range of economic relations between business entities (companies). To develop the tools for the analysis of economic security at the regional level, the authors suggest to use in the system of monitoring such indicators as the average size of economic space, the quality of economic space, the intensity of economic space, the information availability, and the level of synchronization of economic time.

Development of Innovative Component for the Region’s Economic Security
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This article studies the development of innovative component for the region’s economic security. The hypothesis of the study is that in the context of globalization and development of network society, innovation is becoming one of the key elements ensuring the economic security of a region. We considered the relationship between the concepts of sustainable development and economic security. The authors show that currently, the economic security of the country directly depends on its place within the innovation chain. We substantiate that Russian Federation and its regions need to shift to the innovation development based on strengthening its own sources for long-term growth. The paper considers the basic theoretical and methodological problems in the formation of innovation component of the Russian regions’ economic security. We reveal the major essence and elements of the innovative component of the sustainable economic development of the region. The authors show that the formation of the innovative component of the region’s economic security demands the correlation of the strategy of regional innovation development and the production and technological type of territory. Additionally, this strategy should correlate with the desirable ways of production type transformation in the future, considering the trends of the world economy. We have highlighted the production and technological types of Russian regions as well as identified the features of relevant regional components for the innovation system of the Russian Federation to ensure sustainable development. The study defines the priority directions and goals for the development of economic security innovative component in the Russian regions. The authors’ calculations allowed to select a group of territorial subjects of the Russian Federation, which appear to be the most promising for the development of innovative activities for the elaboration of export-oriented high-tech industries. The results of this research can be used to improve the management of innovation activity and ensure the economic security of the Russian regions.

Comprehensive Assessment of Industries Economic Security: Regional Aspect
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The article investigates the interaction of the forms of network integration and the development of complimentary production networks in terms of economic security. Currently, the most developed countries are occurring a transition from the industrial society to the information society. The industry 4.0 as the continuous communication at all levels and characterizes the production processes, in which technologies and devices interact automatically in the value-added chain. Under these new conditions, the former types of organizational structures of economic entities are not sufficiently effective. Therefore, there is a need to create new, modern types of organizational structures. One of these types is network structures. Currently, they are becoming characteristic features of the new economy. Regional economic security depends on internal and external threats, which lead to unstable situations. Regional crisis situations are influenced by both macroeconomic crisis processes and local features of economic and social development, as well as the resource potential, geographical location, national and other peculiarities. The article defines the specific characteristics of the regions of the Ural Federal District, as well as the current situation of the regional economy and threats to the region. The authors have evaluated the economic security of complimentary production networks at the regional level. This evaluation has revealed the interconnection between complimentary production networks and the construction industry in the national economy. We have defined the economic security of complimentary production networks and specified the concept of complimentary production networks. The research findings may be applied by organizations as a new perspective of industry using network forms related to economic security.

Optimizing the Use of Resources of Technogenic Deposits Taking into Account Uncertainties
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The article discusses the problem of resource deterioration and the exhaustion of natural resources as well as the involvement in economic circulation of waste production, resources of technogenic deposits in order to maintain natural capital and support “green” economic growth. This necessitates the development of the mechanism for the environmental management optimization. This mechanism aims at using technogenic deposits in the economy to decrease of both the nature intensity of production and the cost of production. Furthermore, the environmental management optimization should reduce the negative impact of production on the environment. The authors propose to construct a model of economic relevance for the use of waste based on the theory of sustainable development and the theory of substitution of primary natural resources. Under substitutes, we consider useful products, resources from technogenic deposits, resulting from past economic activities. The article considers the problem of accumulation of municipal solid waste and industrial wastes in the regions of Russia in terms of forming and operating the ever-growing technogenic deposits. The authors propose a set of models for the optimum exploitation of technogenic deposits taking into account various factors of the external and internal environment as well as the time factor. The proposed models allow to substantiate and choose the best technologies for the processing of accumulated waste in terms of the reduction of pollution and “green” revenues from the exploitation of technogenic deposits. To account the probabilistic assessments of the geological structure of the technogenic deposits, we propose to use a combination of Monte-Carlo method and of developed optimization models. The authors describe the calculation results and the prospects for the development of a comprehensive model using regional technogenic deposits. The results of the research allow forming an optimal set of projects for waste processing and rehabilitation of disturbed territories at the regional level. The proposed economic and mathematical tools will be useful for updating the federal target program “Elimination of accumulated environmental damage” for 2015–2026.
Finances of region

Features of Intellectual Property Rights Lending
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The article describes the current situation in lending intellectual property (IP) rights in Russia. Furthermore, I investigate the existing legal framework for this type of lending. Special attention is paid to Russian and foreign literature review, including dissertations. The author studied the dynamics of lending trademarks license contracts and based on the official data of Federal Service for Intellectual Property of the Russian Federation archives and intellectual activity of 2009 — 2016. I describe borrowers and lenders as well as Russian regional banks having experience in intellectual property rights lending in 2014 — 2016. The author identified and commented the benefits of implementing such credit for a commercial bank and the company-borrower. Special attention is paid to difficulties and risks for both the lender and the borrower. The author has developed a mechanism of intellectual property rights lending, which describes procedures for parties. The study has defined the preferred algorithms for both the company-borrower and profitable bank. Moreover, I have described the “problem loan”, or late repayment of credit and interest. The paper describes conditions, which are necessary for the successful implementation of the developed credit schemes. I have revealed the impact of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation on the status of lending of IP and proposed measures to improve the situation. Recommendations of the author would help to promote secured bank lending of IP rights. This will have positive results for both the borrowers and the regional banks.

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The paper deals with the issue of disparities in the tax revenue and yield coefficients of individual regions of the Czech Republic in the period from 2005 to 2014. The subject-matter of the research are the income taxes and the value-added tax, which are important tax revenues of public budgets and the source of financing of the regional and municipal budgets. For a comparison of the regions, the spot method is used. According to the results, the ranking of the regions is compiled. The spot method is based on the model region, which reaches the maximum values of a selected indicator. Furthermore, we calculated the indexes of revenues, along with yield coefficients of the value added tax as well as the corporate and personal income tax for each region. Tax revenues are affected in particular by legislative changes, but also by geographic, demographic and socio-economic differences among the regions. The authors have verified an assumption that individual regions have the same position in terms of both investigated variables. This assumption was not confirmed. It was found that the order of the regions for the examined variables was different. On the contrary, regions with a high share of tax revenues have low values in terms of tax yield coefficients.

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The aim of this paper is to examine the development of a financial framework for assessing the effectiveness of interventions. The research is based on the evidence from Serbia. In terms of methods applied, we used econometric and scenario analysis. We presented — as individual separate items — the issues such as “who” — Government budget (Ministry, specific program, loan, donor, etc.), “how much” — the amount spent, “where” (NUTS 2 region), and on “what” (type of initiative). In our model, each of the interventions applied to one of the regional development priorities is linked and evaluated by its effectiveness observing the performance of the group of indicators associated with each of the priorities. All data obtained from 8 sectors were categorized under 4 priorities, i.e. “People, Place, Productive Capacity, and Institutional Capacity”. Accordingly, we evaluate the effectiveness by observing the performance of a group of indicators related to each of the priorities. Our recommendations for optimizing the distribution structure of regional policies and regions are determined by the analysis of the performance of the group of indicators and their relative rankings per NUTS 2 region. The results are significant for further theoretical and applied research, as well as decision-making in the field of government financial policy. Our results confirmed that calculations of funds for regional development in strategic areas appear to be slightly problematic because, in the past, there was no strategic distribution based on established facts, which could be measured in terms of performance.

Round tables
<December 2017>