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Journal "Ekonomika regiona"

For the 200-year anniversary of Karl Marx

Karl Marx is a Thinker and Creator of the Future
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The article considers Karl Marx, an outstanding thinker, who thanks to his knowledge of philosophy, history, and economics has managed to predict the stages and forms for economic, social and, substantially, spiritual development of peoples. His vision of the future is based on the thoughtful, real, and significant understanding of the economic activity of human society. Generally, the scientific community with rather deep and sincere respect paid attention to his ability to expect the future for centuries forward. This article is not just a tribute to the 200 anniversary since the birth of the genius. Now in the 21st century, K. Marx’s anniversary is, first of all, the recognition of his genius. Living now, we see the economic, social and spiritual development of humanity in the conditions of convergence of science, education, quality of life, human health, warm-heartedness and credibility in overcoming even small challenges. We strive for a careful attitude to nature, rational use of its gifts and natural wealth. Only in such harmony, the mankind will have a happy future.

Features of the Creative Method of Karl Marx
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Reflections on the features of Karl Marx’s creative method (1818–1883) are presented in the genre of intellectual history. In this framework, I analyse the influence of exogenous and endogenous factors on the research process, on the personality of the scientist as well as on the choice of the directions of scientific inquiry, etc. In this respect, the 200th anniversary of the scientist’s birth provides an excellent opportunity to consider various features of his scientific activity and how a variety of reasons influenced it. Along the description of K. Marx’s life, I revealed and characterized such peculiarities of his creative method as the interdisciplinary nature of research activity, thorough and omprehensive selection of material for analysis, the desire to prove each theoretical position in several ways, the ability to recognize the limitations of his capabilities, and the readiness to correct his position. However, K. Marx remained true to his two mottos. One of them is “De omnibus dubitandum”, which distinguished him as a scientist, since it is doubt that creates the need for the analysis of phenomena of the surrounding world. The other one, “Nihil humani a me alienum puto”, testified that K. Marx was an ordinary man with his weaknesses, shortcomings, etc. For example, he usually published only the first parts (volumes) of his iconic works. In general, K. Marx as a scientist and as a man managed to give an intellectual charm to the idea of a proletarian revolution. Moreover, Marxism is still in demand as a research area of social sciences.

Theoretical Foundation of Dialectics of Economic Development in Karl Marx’s Capital
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The article deals with the logical and theoretical structure of K. Marx’s «Capital». In the «Theories of Surplus Value», there is the ascent from the concrete to the abstract in the history of economic thought. This ascent allowed to define the goods as a starting point for the political economy of the capitalist mode of production. But there is no direct way to the economic theory of Marx, whose subject is not the products labour activity, but the material production relations arising during these activities. While researching the goods, Marx uses the «power of abstraction», which allows separating «economic matter» from the «naturally tangible» material basis: use value, concrete labour, etc. An integral system of economic categories is based on the synthesis of natural historical thinking phenomena discovered by Aristotle; Hegel’s understanding of purposive activity; specific goals of social production, which are realized in property relations. K. Marx introduces into scientific knowledge the notion of economic progress as a change of social formations. He considers the significance of different models of the division of labour for determining the concept of value. In A. Smith’s model, the value is determined a posteriori, after market evaluation of the products or services produced. A unit of measurement is not working time in itself, but economic information on the effectiveness of its use, i.e. money. In the model of K. Marx, the value is determined a priori, in the form of labour costs in the physiological sense. Given a choice, the labour expended receives a marginal evaluation in the form of alternative costs (loss of profits). The meaning of the «absolute, universal law of capitalist accumulation» is identified as a causa finalis, which determines the value of the commodity labour, variable capital, surplus value. I conclude that the development of the dialectics of the topic and the focus of an economic study allows using the method of rational eclecticism if the corresponding material is subject to a subsequent dialectical-materialistic interpretation.

On the Way to «Conscious» Capitalism: From Marx to Modernity
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The article provides a scientific overview of the evolution of views on the capitalist development from Marx to our days through the prism of the need of social transformations, changes in the value, moral and ethical foundations of the modern capitalism. I consider the basic models of transition to the so-called «conscious» capitalism: stakeholder model, model of corporate social responsibility, model of democratization of property relations (the model of shared capitalism), and directly the model of «conscious» capitalism. The article highlights the relevance of transition from the primacy of proprietary thinking, the desire of owners to maximize shareholder value and increase their welfare to the stakeholder model, which takes into account the interests of a wide range of stakeholders. The trust can be appropriately considered as a condition for implementing the stakeholder model, which provides an opportunity for the development of civilized, socially-oriented relations in business and the economy as a whole. The model of corporate social responsibility contributes to the implementation of common values and its significance for a new stage in the evolution of capitalism. I compare the approaches to the democratization of property relations and shared capitalism on the example of foreign and Russian experience. I conclude that the introduction of the principles of conscious capitalism is not yet a generally accepted practice, which is explained in many ways by different levels of capitalist development. At the same time, the importance of influencing the business model of «conscious» capitalism forces modern capitalists to rethink market opportunities, to transform traditional capitalist values to the concept of common values and to use additional benefits to increase the sustainability of society.

Differences of Opinion between K. Marx and A. I. Herzen over the Prospects of Economic Development of Russia: Significance for the Present Time
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The article analyses the differences in views between K. Marx and A.I. Herzen on the prospects of economic development of Russia in the second half of the 19th century. The paper shows that K. Marx proved his views relying on the development of the industry, which had created conditions for the extension of the individualistic capitalist relations as well as for the appearance of the proletariat. A. I. Herzen paid more attention to the community relations, which gave to the Russian capitalism national specificity. A considerable part of the differences between the views of K. Marx and A. I. Herzen on the prospects of economic development of Russia is connected with their attitude towards the Russian rural community. Therefore, the article reveals their understanding of this phenomenon. K. Marx understood the community in connection with land ownership. However, A. I. Herzen attributed different social aspects to the community, as well as discussed communal self-government. For the first time, I define their mental perception of the opportunities of social transformations in Russia as one of the main differences in views between K. Marx and A.I. Herzen. K. Marx was shaped by the values of industrial and urban society. Therefore, he looked at the prospects of economic development of Russia through the materialistic understanding of history, and considered the proletariat as the driving force of transformations. A. I. Herzen’s way of thinking developed under the influence of the Russian mentality. As an artist and writer, he adhered to a figurative and intuitive, emotional type of thinking, which is closer to the rural life. He supported the change of a social regime, but considered that one should not destroy all the previous orders simply because they were old. He thought that it was necessary to understand the features of national mentality, and that the Russian collectivism was suitable for socialism more than the Western European individualism. I have proved that the differences of opinion between these two scientists are directly relevant to a challenge of choosing the road for the development of Russia in the 21st century. The collectivistic origins are to be considered, as well as the ideas of a social imprinting when forming the modern Russian capitalism. I have concluded that there were no serious differences in opinion between K. Marx and A. I. Herzen on the prospects of economic development of Russia in 19th century. There were certain divergences in views on understanding the Russian society. These divergences allow to see the beginning of essentially new approaches to the socio-economic development of modern Russia.
New research related to regional economy

Socio-Economic Effectiveness of the Development of the Railway Network in Siberia and the Far East: Mathematical Simulation and Forecast
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The purpose of the research consists in the quantitative evaluation of long-term macroeconomic, social, geopolitical effects from the realization of the project of the development of the railway network in Siberia and the Far East, including the building of high-speed rail. In the study, we applied the methods of mathematical simulation and forecasting. Calculations with the use of the developed mathematical models have shown that the implementation of this project will play a large role in the socioeconomic development of the country as well as in strengthening its geo-economic and geopolitical positions in the Asia-Pacific Region and in the world as a whole.

Russian Grain Exports in the Context of Regional Economic Policy
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Over the past two years, Russia has become the world leader in grain exports and intends to maintain growth rates. The authors enter into polemics with scientists who estimate the export of grain as the success of the agrarian economy. The purpose of the study is to find arguments for proving that the current model of the food market formation is erroneous. This model is based on the export of grain in combination with the import of the food with high added value. Our hypothesis is that the export of grain abroad was the result of low demand in the domestic market, which is due to the structural deformation of agricultural production. The study is based on the works of scientists in foreign trade policy (D. Ricardo, F. List, B. Ulin, S. Witte, D. Mendeleev). Statistical data, include the period before the embargo on food (2012–2014) and after it (2015–2016). In the conditions of inflation, preference was given to the indicators of the physical volume of output. The situation on the food market is complicated by a decrease in consumer demand and a fall in real incomes of the population. The imposition of an embargo on food imports reoriented imports to other countries. We propose measures of state regulation of the agro-food market: the introduction of export duties on grain and export subsidies for products with high added value. The research results can be used to develop mechanisms for regional economic policy in the agro-food sector.
Socio-economic problems of region

Contribution of Education to the Socio-Economic Development of the Subjects of the Russian Federation
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Education is critical to economic and social development and has an impact on individual’s future income. Education affects not only the potential ability of the individual to increase his or her future income, but can be considered as a source of socio-economic development of the region. This paper presents the results of the evaluation of the education contribution to the socio-economic development of Russian regions. The study was conducted both for the Russian Federation as a whole and for the Federal districts and regions of Russia. We have developed the methodology for calculating the potential contribution of education to the socio-economic development of Russian regions. We assumed that when graduates enter the labour market they contribute to the economic growth and the social activity. From 2005 to 2016, the authors have analysed contribution of the following types of education: secondary general education, basic vocational education, secondary vocational education and higher education. Furthermore, we have considered the contribution of higher education to the socio-economic development of the regions of Russia across types of targeted training and specializations to select a sample of ten territorial subjects of the Russian Federation. We came to the conclusion that the higher education is the main contributor to the socio-economic development of the subjects of the Russian Federation. The potential contribution of the general education system to the socioeconomic development of the subjects of the Russian Federation is due to the fact that it prepares pupils for the following education levels, but not for their entry to the labour market. The results of the research can be used to conduct a regular assessment of the impact of region’s education system to its social and economic development, as well as to optimize the regional structure of secondary and higher education.

Industrial Policy Priorities of Russia in the Context of Challenges of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Part 2
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The article emphasizes the relevance of the digital economy development as one of the most important directions of the fourth industrial revolution. It is significant for a breakthrough in science and technology, social and economic development. I prove that the industrial policy is a reliable instrument for supporting digital economy. The following factors define the priorities of industrial policy: the level of socio-economic development of the country, the existing model of economic development, an image of the country’s future. I consider the evolution of the industrial policy priorities in Russia. In current situation, the essentially new priority is the support of digital economy. I find that pro-active digital economy formulation and management in collaboration of all branches of the government as well as the development of digital economy together with sector programmes and programmes of innovative development, etc. are of great importance. I have suggested steps, which could make the Industry Development Fund to support the new priorities connected with digital economy development. Furthermore, I have developed proposals on adjusting provisions, which define the possibility to apply special investment contracts for stimulating the digital economy development. I have defined the main directions of staffing the digital economy. The article emphasizes that «digital transformation of the industry» radically changes the idea targets and subjects of industrial policy. So-called related industries, as the association of goods, individuals, and technologies within the industrial system, the structures based on such special type of business models as technological platforms and the human needs become a new targets of the industrial policy. During the fourth industrial revolution, a system of interaction between federal and regional authorities and various business associations as well as civil society institutions becomes the main subject of industrial policy. This predetermines a multi-actor character of the industrial policy. The requirements to leaders of the state and business structures have increased. Therefore, their responsibility for preventing negative social and ethical consequences of the implementation of new technology solutions.

Problems of Food Security in the Regions of the Far North of Russia
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The article analyzes the issues of food provision of the northern regions of Russia. The development of transport infrastructure is insufficient for the year-round delivery of perishable goods. A lack of research in this field is due to the fact that the transport system in these territories is mainly focused on the delivery of raw materials. The food security was estimated by food supply balances and population surveys. In this study, I use a conceptual model of food security. The food supply security was assessed using two groups of criteria: the availability of food supplies and access to them. The studies have shown that in the regions of the Far North of Russia, the supply of perishable food is insufficient, its assortment is limited, the quality is low at abovemarket prices. The development of the transport infrastructure is a leading factor that determines the food security in the northern regions. I propose to estimate the efficiency of transport delivery schemes considering the losses from their failures. The calculation of losses can prove that the used delivery schemes are not the most effective ones, and there is a need to develop other schemes of transportation. The comparative analysis of the used transport delivery takes into account the delivery time, the cost of transportation and the risks supply disruptions. This analysis has shown, that in the Far North, the delivery by rail to the Siberian rivers beds with subsequent transportation by river transport is the most demanded way of food supply. This delivery method incurs the minimum transportation costs. However, it is the longest route, and has the highest risk of supply disruptions. The second largest delivery scheme by the volume of food supplies is the Northern Sea Route. It incurs higher transport costs, shorter delivery time and lower risks. The third scheme of delivery is by air transport. It is the most under-utilized way of three routes with the minimum losses from disruptions and the maximum cost. The results of this study can be used to redesign delivery schemes and to identify priority areas for the development of transport infrastructure.

Competitiveness of Various Segments of the Regional Consumer Market
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Socio-economic development of a territory is particularly important in the context of the Russian society globalization, the acceleration of innovation, the emergence of new markets, increased competition for resources, as well as in the situation when consumers become the main factor determining the principles and methods of modern competition. Therefore, it is relevant to define the level of competitiveness of economic actor. The paper considers the criteria for the development of the consumer market’s retail segment. Furthermore, we have developed the model of competitiveness of local economic actors in the retail segment of the consumer market on the example of the Sverdlovsk region. As a result, we have formulated the conceptual framework for competitiveness of local economic actors in consumer market’s retail segment. Retail trade has socio-economic significance. Thus, there is a need to develop a consolidated framework for the competitiveness of economic actors in consumer market’s retail segment. Theoretical and practical experience of national and foreign researchers in this field has allowed us to suggest our position on the investigated problem. It is based on four components. The first one is theoretical foundations of the basic concept of competitiveness. The second component is the system of accounting and analysis. Thirdly, there are the system and methods of financial analysis. And the last component is the shareholder value model (EVA, VBM, DCF). The authors’ conceptual framework is based on the theoretical and methodological foundations of modern innovative tools for the financial management of competitiveness. The results of the research can become a basis for the development of new conceptual framework for the activities of local economic actors in the retail segment of the consumer market. It will ensure their effective strategic development.

Balanced Natural Resource Management of a Region: Estimation by Dynamic Normal Technique
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Recently, the balance of social, infrastructure, economic, technology and other factors is a core focus area in the regional economic development. Similar priorities appear in the planning and organization of economic activities in various productive sectors including natural resource management and subsoil management as a part of it. However, the diversity of approaches to understanding the term “balance” and its assessment does not allow to achieve a sufficiently high level of state strategic management. This study attempts to develop a consistent approach to the state regulation of natural resource management in order to balance economic activity when developing the natural-resource potential of a region. The results of the research are the following. Firstly, we have defined the concepts of “balanced natural resource management” and “balanced subsoil management”. Secondly, we have identified the key principles of balanced natural resource and subsoil management. And last, we have developed the guidelines for assessing a balance level of natural resource management (subsoil management) in a region. The proposed method is used for the estimation of a balance level of subsoil management in the Sverdlovsk region. We have concluded that subsoil management in the Sverdlovsk region meets conditions only to 52 %. The resource component is at the level of 63 %; the economic component — 50 %; the environmental component — 51 % and the social component — 44 %. This indicates an extremely unfavourable situation in the mining industry of Sverdlovsk region in terms of balance. We have undertook a rapid assessment of subsoil management in the Sverdlovsk region. The depth of the study is largely determined by the method used. The lack of statistical data for regions by economic activity became the research limitation. Further research can focus on other components of natural resource management, expanding factors’ list affecting subsoil management for assessing the balance level in the Sverdlovsk region and Ural Federal District with further mapping of the received results.

An Integrated Approach to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Functioning of Free Economic Zone
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Effective functioning of the free economic zone (FEZ) is a tool for accelerating development and increasing the region’s competitiveness, which is strategically important for a city such as Sevastopol. To quickly identify FEZ operation problems and make informed and timely management decisions, I propose balanced scorecard. The article focuses on the comprehensive assessment of the efficiency of free economic zones in the territory of the Russian Federation. I describe the main results of FEZ functioning in Sevastopol. The Balanced Scorecard (BSС) technique is widely used in practice and most debated in the scientific world. However, I propose to apply this method in the framework of a mechanism for managing SEZ participants and ensuring their activities for the long term. To manage the FEZ, I suggest using perspectives: «Finance», «Social efficiency», «Internal administrative processes», «Infrastructure». These perspectives differ from a traditional model. In addition to the legislatively set quantitative indicators for the annual assessment of FEZ performance, I apply qualitative indicators. These are the specific volume of investments per one created workplace; the specific amount of taxes per one created workplace; plan of the volume of proceeds from the sale of goods, works, services; the rate of implementation of the plan for the volume of investments including capital investments, implemented in accordance with the signed agreements on activities and etc. The improvement of methodological approaches to the comprehensive assessment of FEZ performance as a tool of regional government will promote the development of effective regional policy. Moreover, the introduction of the offered methods, algorithms and actions will accelerate market transformations and institutional transformations in the economy of Russian regions. The obtained results can be used both in the development and implementation of activities in regional management of FEZ. Furthermore, the research results allow to residents to directly analyze FEZ with the aim of increasing the efficiency of their activities, as well as investment attractiveness.

Foreign Trade and Regional Inequality:The Case of the Russian Federation
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An impact of foreign trade on national inequality levels is one of the most discussed topics both by public, politicians and academics. This paper contributes to this discussion by focusing on the role of foreign trade in the Russian Federation during its rapid economic transformation in 1990–2010. During this period, the trade-led growth model has helped to raise country-average levels of income. But simultaneously, it seemingly triggered greater inequality in income appropriation between different social groups. Looking into causality between foreign trade and this observed income disparity from the regional perspective will help us to understand the poverty problem associated with income inequality better and enhance the effectiveness of policies of the Russian government targeting income re-distribution. In particular, this research aims to answer a question whether during 1990’s–2000’s increasing openness to foreign trade was pro-poor on the regional level or not. Another point of interest is whether the distributional impact of growing foreign trade on incomes in Russian regions had been positive or negative. Several hypotheses for the Russian Federation are tested in the paper. First, higher openness to foreign trade improved income distribution in the Russian regions. Second, globalization of regions as a result of a more active foreign trade benefited individuals in the middle-income decile. This follows an idea that trade liberalization cuts living costs and raises living standards. Third, regions with larger rural population will tend to have more uneven income distribution. This follows from the neo-classical assumption that in rural areas a poverty burden tends to be larger. Active involvement in the trade of agricultural products might improve income distribution in such regions. Additionally, the share of dependent population among households must affect poverty headcount or the depth of poverty as previous studies on poverty determinants naturally suggested.
Socio-demographic potential of regional development

Ethnic Social and Ecosystem Approach to the Evaluation of the Lifehoods of Small Indigenous Peoples of the North
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The regions of the Russian North occupy 70 % of the territory of the country. These areas considerably differ in the level of socio-economic development. Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (KhMAO) — Yugra is the most developed industrial region of the Russian North. KhMAO is also the main supplier of oil and gas resources. Thus, KhMAO is the focus of the research. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate how the traditional natural resource management transforms on the developing territories and to assess its impact on the lifehoods of the Small Indigenous Peoples of the North (SIPN). The study is based on the hypothesis of the negative impact of industrial development on the territory of the traditional residence of SIPN and, accordingly, on their social and economic development and the quality of life. We have found certain intraregional distinctions of this territorial subject of the Federation. These differences are caused by the features of natural and resource potential, transport security and geographical location. It is true for both the separate municipal entities and larger territorial and administrative sub-regions. We have identified the most acute problems in the development of traditional natural resource management on the territories of active industrial and transport development. The main industries there are reindeer breeding and fishery. We also identified the problem of the northern legislation set up to protect the rights of SIPN. The paper considers the evolutionary changes in the formation of the institution of ancestral domains and the territories of traditional natural resource management, as well as the practice of coordinating the interests of subsoil users and SIPN’s representatives with the help of economic agreements. We have demonstrated the problem associated with the difficulties of social adaptation of SIPN. We have analyzed the ecological situation and current state of traditional environmental management to compare the conditions of municipal entities of the region. Using ethnic social and ecosystem approach, we have evaluated the lifehoods of SIPN in the developed and poorly developed regions of KhMAO. The results of the assessment support the hypothesis of the research. The findings of the research can be used when working out on the roadmap of the development of traditional industries and SIPN in the municipal districts of various development level.

Higher Education as a Factor of the Cities’ Preservation in the Ural Macro-Region
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The article considers the relationship between the development of Ural cities and institutions of higher education there. The topic of the study is relevant as there is a need to find resources for socio-economic, demographic, and sociocultural development of the medium-sized, big and large cities of the Ural Federal District (UFD). Many of these cities have been under the crisis. In our view, one of the ways to overcome it is to develop there the universities and branches of higher education institutions. We focus on the relationships and dependencies between contradictory processes in higher education and constructive and destructive trends of the dynamics of the Ural cities. For the first time, on the theoretical level and empirical data, we show the conditions and limitations for the city-preserving function of universities. This function is closely connected with the «third mission» of the university. We prove that under conditions of social and economic uncertainty, the universities and strong branches of universities can be the key factor in preserving middle-sized, big and large cities. With the results of the case studies of three UFD cities — Nizhny Tagil, Surgut, Tobolsk, we show the necessity of feedback between the city and the university. The study of higher education in these cities confirmed the connection between the degradation of educational institutions and recent negative trends — youth migration, and then — social and economic decline of the city. We have argued the need for mutual support of educational institutions and urban actors. The city-preserving function of universities can be implemented under the condition of the university-preserving activities of university management, urban community, urban and the regional authorities. In our opinion, the strategies of cities should include provisions on the universities’ preservation and interaction with them as with mechanisms enabling cities to act as the main agents of socio-economic and socio-cultural development of the Ural Federal District. The results of the research can become a basis for the improvement of UFD educational policy as well as for the development of strategies for medium-sized, big and large cities of the region.

Economic Preconditions for the Development of Public-Private Partnership in the Vologda Region
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The partnership of the state and business is one of the powerful tools for solving socially significant tasks of a region. The annual rankings of regions as regards the level of public-private partnership development do not take sufficient account of the initial economic and investment conditions for the development of regions. Moreover, it hampers assessing the effectiveness of the regional authorities in the sphere of public-private partnership. Therefore, the identification of economic preconditions stimulating or, on the contrary, restraining the development of public-private partnership in the subjects of the Russian Federation is relevant. The article describes the main trends in the development of public-private partnership in the Vologda region. The study is based on the rating assessments of the level of public-private partnership development in the regions of the Russian Federation, as well as on the socio-economic ranking of regions and the rating of their investment potential and risk. To achieve the goal of the study, the methods of dynamic analysis, modelling, and structural analysis as well as statistical methods are used in the article. The research has shown a strong correlation dependence of the development of public-private partnership in the region on its economic and investment situation. The Vologda region ranked 29th place in the public-private partnership development rating in 2016. I substantiate that the region should occupy 44th place in this rating taking into account economic and investment conditions, and under the optimistic scenario, it could take the 9th place. It indicates the reserves for the development of the public-private partnership in the region. The author’s coefficient of the application of economic and investment conditions for the development of public-private partnership in the Vologda region is 1.52, which indirectly confirms the effectiveness of government decisions in the sphere of public-private partnership. Further research in the field of the formation of conceptual bases for the public-private partnership development taking into account the industrial features of the Vologda region will contribute to the development of public-private partnership in the Vologda region.
Industry-specific and inter-industry-specific complexes

Strategic Planning of Energy-Efficient Development of a Region of the Russian Federation
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When developing regional strategies, the effectiveness of energy solutions must be linked to the overall economic efficiency of regional development, since the targets for energy-efficient development may conflict with the objectives of the regional economy as a whole. In the article, the task of energy-efficient development of a region of the Russian Federation is reduced to the search for the agreed scenarios of the development of fuel and energy complex (FEC) and the regional economy. These scenarios allow achieving a maximum approximation to the stated goals for the set of energy and economic indicators. I have developed a model of the FEC of a region as a dynamic CGE-model. It is developed as a part of the general model of the socio-economic activity of a region. This model represents the interrelated processes of production, processing, transportation and the use of all types of fuel and energy resources in a region. I propose the forecasting methodology of balanced development of the economy and fuel and energy complex. This methodology provides iterative harmonization of forecasts for consumption and production of energy based on regional fuel and energy balance (FEB). At the same time, the FEB developed within the framework of the FEC model is a part of the overall product-sector balance of the economy, which plays the role of the “balance of balances”. It allows to simulate the interaction of FEC and the rest of the economy through inter-balance relations. Based on the developed methods and models, I have implemented the information technology of situation forecasting and strategic planning in the form of forecasting and analytical tool. This tool simulates the scenarios of energy-efficient development of the economy of the Samara region. As an example, the article presents the assessment of energy efficiency for an option of Samara region development according to the target scenario of Russia’s Energy Strategy for the period up to 2035.

Cost-Effective Management of Electricity Transmission in an Industrial Region
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One of the worldwide modern instruments to increase power efficiency is the price-dependent electricity consumption. It is one of the elements in managing the demand for power consumption. The programs of price-dependent power consumption are globally relevant. However, in Russia, their development is still on a conceptual phase. This paper analyses regional tariffs for the power transmission from the perspective of encouraging consumers to price-dependent demand management for electricity consumption. We examine the structure of final electricity tariffs for various categories of consumers as well as identify the percentage rate for the electricity transmission for each category. We consider the methodology of single-part and two-part tariffs for electricity transmission, their structure, and advantages of application. On the example of Volga Federal District tariffs, we have calculated single-part and two-part tariffs for the power transmission in industrial enterprises in terms of three typical schedules of electricity consumption. To compare the efficiency of the price-dependent demand management for the electricity transmission in different regions of Russia, we have introduced the indicators “coefficient of the transmission tariff” and “integral coefficient of the transmission tariff”. Furthermore, we made calculations for 65 regions of Russia entering the price zones of power wholesale market. As a result of the analysis, we divided Russian regions of Russia according to the indicator of “integrated coefficient of transmission tariff” in 3 administrative groups. For each group, we have developed recommendations on pricedependent demand management for power transmission. The theoretical significance of the research consists in the development of methods for the analysis and selection of the most appropriate industrial enterprise tariff for electricity transmission. In practice, regional authorities can use the developed groups of regions to change the structure of regional tariffs in order to stimulate consumers to price-dependent power consumption. Moreover, the algorithm for calculating tariffs for electricity transmission can be applied by the industrial Russia enterprises in price-dependent demand management of power consumption to choose an optimum tariff and reduce costs on power transmission.

Efficiency of Funding Healthcare for Ensuring the Economic Security of a Region
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The social sphere plays an important role in the socio-economic development of the developed countries. The achievement of a high level of education, healthcare, science and culture promotes the economic growth and welfare of the population. Recently, however, the Russian researchers do not pay sufficient attention to the new models of the social services. In this regard, the research of the efficiency of healthcare as a major branch of the social sphere is relevant. Under the conditions of deteriorating socio-demographic situation in Russia, an important component ensuring economic security at the level of the country and regions is the preservation of human potential. This challenge is possible to address, on the one hand, due to an increase in spending on healthcare. On the other hand, it is possible due to progressive transformations of the medical care. Such transformations will increase in return of financial investments and the effectiveness of healthcare services. The purpose of the study is to create an assessment model of healthcare performance as well as of the efficiency of financial investments in the healthcare services using the methods of statistical, system and multivariate analysis as well as economic and mathematical modelling. We define the multicriteria character of the efficiency in healthcare connected with multiple cost-benefit ratios while achieving medical, social, economic effects. We propose a multi-factor dynamic model, integrated indicator of performance, and integral indicator of cost-effectiveness. To test the model, we chose one of the priority directions of the healthcare development — fight against tuberculosis, as it is a threat for socio-demographic and economic security of a region. We have assessed the efficiency of funding and performance indicators on the example of tuberculosis service of the Sverdlovsk region. We have received a positive dynamics of medico-demographic indicators as well as a high economic effect. We have proved the possibility to increase the socio-demographic and economic security of a region achieving medical, social and economic efficiency in the healthcare. This contributes to the preservation of human and labour potential, as well as economic growth. The results of the research can be applied in the healthcare system to adequately assess the performance of medical organizations taking into account the specificity of diseases and the efficiency of financial investments as well as the contribution to the socio-demographic and economic security of а region.
Innovative capacity of a region

Threats to the Innovative Security of Regional Development in a Digital Society
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This article discusses the problems of ensuring the innovative security of regional development in a digital society. The hypothesis of the study is to suggest that the emergence of digital technical and economic paradigm is accompanied by innovative regional development risks and introduces significant changes in the ideology and mechanisms of the territorial innovative security. We have assessed the level of the development of the digital economy and innovation in Russia using the comparative analysis. We have developed a methodological approach based on rating. The approach allows assessing the level of favourable conditions in the regions of Russia for the formation and development of the high-tech sector of the economy. We have suggested the definition of innovative security, which is formulated in accordance with modern views on how to achieve the sustainable development of territories and maintain their competitiveness in the new reality. We have revealed the impact of specific factors of the digital economy on the global and regional innovative processes. The research reveals basic problems and justifies the most promising options for Russia to build the strategy of innovative security. The paper shows that, in the Russian Federation, the absolute priority for innovation security is the development of innovation ecosystem, which would be adequate to the challenges of digital society. This innovation ecosystem should be capable to achieve acceptable (considering the competition in global markets) parameters for the development of science, the high-tech manufacturing sector, and higher education. We have proved that the establishment of the innovation ecosystem of the country is strategically important to start with the regions, holding leading positions on science development, innovative capacity and high-tech industries. Calculations are made using official statistics and allow to define with reasonable objectivity spatial priorities for the innovative security strategy of the country. We have formulated the directions for improving public policies as a mandatory condition for increasing the innovative security of regional development. The results of this research can be used to elaborate a strategy of innovative development as well as to address practical issues of managing innovation processes of the territories and to enhance the sustainability of regional development.
Agrictural and food market: new vector of development

Untapped Opportunities for the State Support of Agricultural Labour in Russia
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The focus of the article is the research of opportunities to improve the state support of the Russian Federation’s modern agriculture. The purpose of the study is to choose the most effective options for providing financial aid according to the indicators of its social and economic development. Moreover, we aimed to select the best ways of this financial aid’s distribution within areas and in the agricultural enterprises. The article highlights underestimated opportunities to increase the effectiveness of material and financial assistance to the agricultural sector. These opportunities do not consist uniquely in increasing financing but also in reasonable principles of using support funds by the agricultural enterprises. To this end, I propose to identify the directions of economic development, which are both profitable for an agricultural enterprise itself and meeting the goals of the overall social and economic development of the region and the interests of its population. Priority in obtaining state aid should be given to those enterprises whose production activities contribute to social and economic development of the region. The author’s multi-years research together with the scientists of the institutes of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences have allowed to identify the main reasons for the delay in the development of Russian agriculture in 2005–2016. In addition to the well-known negative impact of the shortage of funds and unfavourable natural conditions on the economy of agricultural enterprises, I found other reasons such as a weak development of the labour market and technologies, neglect of social, physical and industrial infrastructure. At the same time, the negative influence of these reasons is noticeably stronger than the negative influence of traditional factors. In this regard, the article proposes to improve the practice of allocating support funds. Funding should be used not only for on-farm, purely industrial needs but also for these enterprises’ social and economic development, as well as for the overall development of their region. I have applied the economic and statistical methods, analytic and computational algorithms processing a large amount of information on the development of agricultural production of the Russian Federation and foreign countries. As a result of the research, I propose areas for the improvement of state policy protecting agriculture. It will be useful to the regional authority and regional administrations, heads of the agricultural enterprises as well as scientific experts in the field of agricultural economics.

Transition of Agriculture to Digital, Intellectual and Robotics Technologies
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At present, the entities of the agrarian sector are moving towards the digital, intellectual and robotic technologies or the robotization of the industry. Robotics is used in the various fields of the agrarian sector, the most widespread is the milking robotics. From 2006 to 2016, in the agricultural enterprises of the Russian Federation, 393 units of robotics were introduced. While in the Sverdlovsk region at the beginning of 2018, 37 units of this equipment have been used. We suggest to use the indicator of “density of agricultural robotization” to characterize the effectiveness of the transition to robotics. This indicator for Russia increased from 0.02 to 0.78 units, and for the Sverdlovsk region — from 0.3 to 3.17 for the periods under review. However, the slowdown and low values of the density of agricultural robotics make it necessary to develop appropriate measures. The article proposes a model of an organizational and economic mechanism for the transition to robotics. It includes target, investment, technical and technological as well as personnel sections. The initial data on the state of the introduction of robotics in agricultural organizations was provided by the ministries and departments, as well as statistical bodies. We determined scenarios of inertial, targeted and system development of robotics in agriculture depending on the level of state support. We have determined that the investments needed for the robotization of agricultural enterprises in the Sverdlovsk region are at the level of 472 million rubles. Moreover, we have formulated the tasks, recommendations and the expected result from the training of personnel capable to master robotics in the industry. The most important measure is the reduction in the cost of this equipment due to its domestic production. The results of the research can be used by the executive authorities in developing programmes for the innovative development and technical modernization of agriculture.

Does Agriculture Matter for Economic Growth of Uttar Pradesh (India)?
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Twenty-five years have passed since economic reform in India. It brought about many macroeconomic policy changes in the economy. Although these policy changes helped the manufacturing and services sector to grow, agriculture did not get any direct benefits from economic reforms. It was assumed that it would get indirect benefits due to changes in exchange and trade policy, liberal industrial licensing system and reduction in industrial protection, which would benefit tradable agriculture by ending discrimination against it and by turning the terms of trade in its favour. The present study examines the transformation in agriculture and basic contributory roles i. e. product, market, and factor contribution of agriculture in the economy of Uttar Pradesh. Further, a long run association and causal relation between agriculture and other economic sectors and sub-sectors are explored. An understanding of the relationship between agriculture and overall GDP growth becomes important from a policy maker’s perspective, as it would guide the decisions in allocating the scarce resources to attain growth and development. Results show that Product, market, and factor contribution has increased over the years. Empirical estimates show that agriculture is a driver of the unregistered manufacturing sector, transport storage and communication sector; and overall economy as a whole. Public investment in irrigation should be accelerated, cost-effective and yield-raising technology should be accessible to medium and small farmers. Micro and small agro-based enterprises should be established according to specific regional crops, so they can work closely with the agriculture sector and reap the benefits of easy availability of raw material.
Modern tools of analysis and management of economic processes

Determine the External Debt Threshold of the Southeast Asian Countries: Analysis Using Laffer Curve?
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This paper research the relationship between external debt and economic growth. Using the debt Laffer curve theory, the authors determine the maximum debt level of the Southeast Asian countries. Secondary data period 2006–2014 of 10 countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations are collected from the Asian Development Bank and the International Monetary Fund website. The authors use the method of regression for balanced panel data with a fixed effect model. The research results indicate that there exists a nonlinear relationship between external debt and economic growth in the Southeast Asian countries, including five variables: budget balance to gross domestic product, the lag of gross domestic product growth, the ratio of total investment to gross domestic product, the ratio of external debt to gross domestic product and the ratio of debt payments on exports of goods and services. These five variables are significant statistics and explain the meaning 24.87 % of the model. The other two: trade openness and trade index are not statistically significant. On the other hand, the research results have found the maximum debt level of the Southeast Asian countries, which is 70.42 %. Based on the study results, the authors suggest some recommendations to help the government of the Southeast Asian countries to build up the maximum debt levels, in line with the socio-economic development goals of their countries in each period.
Finances of region

Clustering of the Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation by Deposit Risk Level
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The research is focused on the evaluation of regional differences by the level of deposit risk. Deposit risk is connected with resources sustainability of regions and can constrain the transformation of attracted deposits into credit and investment resources. The literature review shows that previous works were primarily focused on deposit risks at the micro level, that is, at the level of a bank. The Bank of Russia uses the same inductive approach to assess the financial sustainability and development prospects of credit institutions at the regional and national levels. However, the execution of prudential regulations by banks, in particular, liquidity ratios, does not allow to make a precise estimation of the differences among regions in terms of deposit risk. The presence of imbalances in the territorial concentration of credit institutions can affect the volatility and cost of deposit resources. The purpose of this paper is to improve the scientific and methodological approaches for assessing deposit risk. For this purpose, we propose to use cluster methods for classifying the regions based on the revealed internal links between deposit risk indicators. In contrast to previous scientific works, we offer to use semi-dispersion for calculating the volatility of deposits. The volatility of deposits can be interpreted as a measure of adverse downside risk. Furthermore, we propose the nominal scale to distinguish the different level of deposit risk. The research results confirm that there is a nonlinear linkage between the territorial concentration of credit organizations, level of provision of regions with banking services as well as volatility of deposits at the level of regions. We have revealed that the concentration of banking business in all regions is more closely connected with the sustainability of bank resources. The scientific approach to deposit risk evaluation presented in the paper expands the system of indicators for the development of the economy of regions. This approach can be used for both the monitoring of the financial and economic development of the regions of the Russian Federation and the macroeconomic forecasting.

Round tables
<September 2018>